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Uterine Sarcomas | What Are the Types of Uterine Sarcoma?

From the GYN Cancer Articles List

What are the different types of uterine sarcomas?What are the different types of uterine sarcomas?

There are several different types of uterine sarcomas, including uterine leiomyosarcomas, endometrial stromal sarcomas, high-grade undifferentiated sarcomas, uterine carcinosarcomas, and adenosarcomas. Uterine sarcomas are considered rare, making up 2-4% of all uterine cancers, but aggressive forms of uterine cancer (a).

UTERINE LEIOMYOSARCOMAS (ULMS)


These sarcomas are malignant tumors of the smooth muscle and start in the myometrium which is the muscular wall of the uterus. They make up about 2% of all cancers that begin in the uterus (b). According to the National Cancer Institute, they account for 30% of all uterine sarcomas, and women are typically diagnosed around age 50 after menopause (c). This type of sarcoma is usually considered aggressive.

ENDOMETRIAL STROMAL SARCOMAS (ESS)

This type of sarcoma develops in the stroma, or connective tissue, of the endometrium and accounts for less than 1% of all cancers of the uterus and 15% of all uterine sarcomas (b)(c). Women are usually diagnosed between the age of 40 and 50 when they are premenopausal. This type of cancer tends to be slow-growing and less aggressive. Of the types of uterine sarcomas, this one offers women the best prognosis and can be treated with either surgery or hormone therapy; however, it has a high rate of recurrence even after a hysterectomy and oophorectomy.

HIGH-GRADE UNDIFFERENTIATED SARCOMAS (HGUS)

This type of sarcoma was initially considered a type of endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS); however, this type of sarcoma tends to be more aggressive with a poor prognosis regardless of stage at diagnosis. Many experience rapid metastases in other areas even after surgical resection of high grade undifferentiated sarcomas. These sarcomas account for less than 1% of all uterine cancers (b).

UTERINE CARCINOSARCOMAS (CS) (also known as Malignant Mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT)


This type of cancer is a hybrid of a carcinoma and a sarcoma that starts in the endometrium. Some doctors classify carcinosarcomas as a sarcoma, while others believe they are more closely related to carcinomas which are cancers that develop in epithelial cells which line or cover most organs. This type of highly-aggressive cancer makes up less than 5% of uterine cancers and 40% to 50% of all uterine sarcomas, but it has poor prognosis and a higher proportion of mortality than other uterine malignancy diagnoses (d)(c).

ADENOSARCOMAS

This rare type of sarcoma is a mix of glandular and sarcoma cells and accounts for 8% of uterine sarcomas. A case report by Slvekar Tinar et al found that this type of sarcoma tends to have weaker malignancy potential, rare metastasis, and late-onset local recurrence. Though women of all ages may be diagnosed with adenosarcomas, they found a higher rate of incidence for older women who are post-menopausal. Recurrence was found most frequently in the vagina and pelvis.

(a) [ASCO-Uterine Cancer
(b) ACS-What is uterine sarcoma?
(c) NCI-General Information About Uterine Sarcoma
(d) NCI-Uterine Carcinosarcoma


This content was written by staff of HysterSisters.com by non-medical professionals based on discussions, resources and input from other patients for the purpose of patient-to-patient support.

Published: 17 February 2014
Last updated: 27 May 2014

02-17-2014 - 09:40 PM


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